STAINING AND SCALING
Most water contains some trace levels of minerals or metals. When the minerals or metals
are in low to normal concentrations, dissolved and in suspension they are not visible. If
they precipitate, or fall out of suspension, staining or scaling can result. Unbalanced pH,
Alkalinity and the addition of sanitizers
are all possible causes for such precipitation. Often
the original source water used to
fill your pool contains iron or other metals or minerals that
are not visible to
the naked eye.
If you know your water is high in metals or minerals,
particularly well water, treat
to adding any chemicals using
following label directions. If your pool is stained you must first
cause to determine the treatment
Vitamin C tablets are the easiest way to determine if
the stain is caused by metals, algae or organics. Drop one or two tablets into the water and
brush or push against the stain. By allowing the tablet to dissolve on the affected area for a
few minutes then checking to see if the area under the tablet has lightened or been removed can
positively identify it as a metal stain.
If the stain is not removed or lightened by Vitamin C, the stains
could be coming from non-living organics such as lotions, cosmetics, leaves, worms, and sweat.
TREATMENT of Non-Metallic Stains
Algae or bacteria can cause green, black, yellow, brown or pink discoloration that will in most cases
respond to high levels of chlorine and algaecide, along with vigorous brushing (although they may
grow back), see
section for more information and treatment recommendations. Leaves,
and other organic material left in the pool can also cause staining. To remove non-
living organic stains you will need to first achieve a very high chlorine reading of 10
ppm, by adding
enter pool until chlorine level
drops to 5 ppm or lower.
Next, you should scrub the area vigorously with a
maintenance brush for vinyl liners. After 24 hours, test and once chlorine level is 5 ppm
or lower, broadcast
Pool First Aid
around the perimeter of the pool and brush again.
The concentrated enzyme and clarifier in Pool First Aid will break down non-living
organics and coagulate any small particulates. Weekly doses of
prevent organic stains from re-occurring.
TREATMENT of Metallic Stains
Heavy metals like copper and iron can cause discoloration of the water or when deposited, staining.
Green usually indicates copper or iron, red
and brown –iron, black or brown –manganese.
Metal stains using
Stain & Iron Control
following label directions for treatment dose
and application instructions.
As with any water problem, prevention is preferred to treatment. A very important step in the
prevention of staining is balanced water, maintaining pH, Total Alkalinity, TDS and Calcium Hardness
at the proper levels. When adjustments are needed for pH or Total Alkalinity follow directions closely.
add too much chemical or make too rapid of an adjustment in a short period of time or
precipitation of metals can result. A weekly dose of
Stain & Iron Control
keep metals bound together so they will not precipitate. Add a dose anytime when adding make-up
water and at the start of each season when new water is being added to the pool.
TREATMENT of SCALING
High levels of metallic salts such as calcium or
magnesium may cause cloudy water forming hard
white deposits or
crystals on the pool surface, referred to as scaling. Treat using
Chemistry’s Scale Free
, per label directions.